Initial Phase Crisis Communications Following High Perceived Risk Events: The Volcanic Ash Crisis and the Japanese Tsunami as Examples.

On 14 April 2010 the Icelandic volcano, Eyjafjallajökull, erupted resulting in a volcanic ash cloud across European airspace. The ash cloud caused a moratorium on flying and concerns over health effects to vulnerable populations. Not even a year since the volcanic ash cloud; on 11 March 2011 a massive 9.0-magnitude earthquake occurred near the northeastern coast of Japan, creating extremely destructive tsunami waves which hit Japan just minutes after the earthquake, triggering evacuations and warnings across the Pacific Ocean.


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Chakraborty, S and Creutzfeldt-Banda, N.


May 11, 2011